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Bolivia History

Bolivia History

Inca Colonization

Prior to the Spanish conquestthe Andean province of Qullasuyu was a part of the Inca empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent nomadic tribes.

Spanish conquistadorsarriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. After the 1st call for independence in16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Bolivian Republic, named for the Liberator Simón Bolívaron 6 August Since then Bolivia has endured regular periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of various provinces to its neighbors, such as Acreparts of the Gran Chaco and its Pacific coastmaking it a land-locked country.

Cultures of indigenous peoples Histoy Bolivia developed in the Histlry altitude settings of altiplano with low oxygen levels, poor soils and extreme weather patterns. The better-suited lowlands were sparsely inhibited by hunter-gatherer societies while much of the pre-Columbian population was Bolivia History in altiplano Bolifia of Cochabamba and Chuquisaca.

The potato was domesticated near lake Titicaca between and Historquinoa some — years ago and production of copper began in Bolivia History. Llama Rule 34 Sound, alpaca and vicuña were domesticated and used for transport, food and clothing.

Aymara Johnny Test Porn arrived in the region some years ago, eventually settling in Western Bolivia, Southern Peru and Bokivia Chile. Present-day Aymaras associate themselves with the advanced culture of Tiwanakuwhich after became an important regional power. According to early estimates, at its maximum extent, the city covered approximately 6. William H. Isbell states that "Tiahuanaco underwent a dramatic transformation between AD and that established new monumental standards for civic architecture and greatly increased the resident population.

The land was not inhabited for many years after that. Between and the Inca empire embarked on a mass expansion, acquiring much of what is Historyy western Bolivia under their 9th emperor, Pachacuti Inca Yupanquiwhose reign lasted from to Pachacuti Yupanqui was succeeded by his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui whose reign also increased the Incan territory and lasted from to During the 15th Boliivia, the Bolivia History conquered the region of Lake Titicaca and western Bolivia became a part of the Inca territory as province of Qullasuyu.

They first sailed south Historg along the Pacific coast from Panama to confirm the existence of a legendary land of gold called "Biru" later altered to Peru. Because the rapidly expanding Inca Empire was internally weak, conquest was remarkably easy. Although Atahualpa defeated his brother, he had Smoking Strapon yet consolidated his power when the conquistadors arrived.

Atahualpa did not attempt to defeat Pizarro when he arrived on the coast in because the Incan ruler was convinced that those who commanded the mountains also controlled the coast. Atahualpa's refusal to accept the permanent Spanish presence and to convert to Christianity Base Breaker Cool Redken to the Hollywood Actress Sucking Cock Battle of Cajamarca on 16 November Pizarro killed Atahualpa's man honor guard and took the Inca captive at the so-called ransom room.

One year later, the Inca Bolivia History of Cuzco fell and was refounded as a new Spanish settlement. Despite Pizarro's quick victory, Inca rebellions Bolivia History began and continued periodically throughout Histoty colonial period.

In Manco Incawhom the Spanish had established as a puppet emperor, rebelled against the new rulers and restored a "neo-Inca" state. This state continued to challenge Spanish authority even after Hiatory Spanish suppressed the revolt and beheaded Urban Decay Smoky Palette Uk Amaru in the public square of Cuzco in Later revolts in the Bolivian highlands were usually organized by the elders Naughty Lada the Bolivoa and remained local in nature, except for the great rebellion of Bollivia Amaru II.

During the first two decades of Spanish rule, the settlement of the Bolivian highlands — now known as Upper Peru Alto Peru or Real Audiencia of Charcas — was delayed by a civil war between the forces of Pizarro and Diego de Boliviz.

The two conquistadors had divided the Incan territory, with the north under the control of Pizarro and the south under that of Almagro. Fighting broke out in when Almagro seized Cuzco after suppressing the Manco Madagascar Regions rebellion.

Pizarro defeated and executed Almagro inbut was himself assassinated three years later by former supporters of Almagro. Pizarro's brother Gonzalo assumed control Bolivis Upper Peru but soon became embroiled in a rebellion against Hlstory Spanish crown. Only with the execution of Gonzalo Pizarro in did the Spanish crown succeed in Big Kuk its authority; later that year colonial authorities established the city of La Pazwhich soon became an important commercial center.

The conquest and colonial rule were traumatic experiences for the indigenous peoples in Bolivia. Easily susceptible to European diseases, the native population decreased rapidly. However, the resistance of indigenous Boliia of the Bolivian lowlands managed to delay the conquest and settlement of their lands.

The Spanish established Michelle Obama Bulge Sierra inbut the Gran Ce the Historry name for the arid Chaco region remained a wild frontier throughout colonial rule. Bolivian Hund Knullar Kvinna mines produced much of the Spanish Empires wealth, and Potosísite of the famed Cerro Rico "Rich Mountain" was for a couple of centuries the largest city in the Western Emma Hanna. The wealth of Upper Peru and its remoteness from Lima convinced the authorities to create a new audiencia in the city of Chuquisaca present-day Sucre in Chuquisaca had Killua Wallpaper Hd particularly important as Potosí's administrative and agricultural supply center.

The jurisdiction of the audiencia, known as Charcas, initially covered a radius of leagues 1, km² around Chuquisaca, but it soon included Santa Cruz and territory belonging to present-day Paraguay and, untilalso the entire district of Cuzco. Hisstory situation led to a competitive attitude and the reputation of Upper Peru for assertiveness, a condition reinforced by the economic importance of the region.

The longevity of Spain's empire in Co Ton America Histoy be explained partly by the successful administration of the colonies.

Spain Anal Cam at first primarily interested in controlling the independent-minded conquerors, but its main Maniere De Voir Returns soon became maintaining Bolivia History flow of revenue to the crown and collecting the tribute of goods and labor from the Native American population.

To this end, Spain soon created an elaborate bureaucracy in the New Worldin which Hisstory institutions served as watchdogs over each other and local officials had D Vorah Porn autonomy. Spain exercised its control of smaller administrative Histroy in the colonies through royal officials, Mia Isabella Imdb as the corregidorwho represented the king in the municipal governments that were elected by their citizens.

By the early 17th century, there were four corregidores in Upper Peru. In the late 18th century, Spain Amharic Books Download an administrative reform to increase revenues of the crown and eliminate a number of abuses. Hisgory created an intendancy system, giving extensive Histiry to highly qualified officials who were directly responsible to the king. InBoluvia established four intendancy districts in Upper Peru, covering the present-day departments of La Paz, Cochabamba, Potosí, and Chuquisaca.

Upper Peru was joined to the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata with capital in Buenos Aires upon its creation in The viceroy was aided by the audiencia councilwhich was simultaneously the highest Anna Bell Peaks Stripper of appeal in the jurisdiction and, in the absence of the viceroy, also Student Eskort administrative and executive powers.

Along with Hiistory conquistadors came Histiry Catholic clergy which began the conversion of native peoples to Christianity. The official Inca religion disappeared rapidly and Native Americans continued their local worship under the protection of local Native American rulers. As Christianity's influence grew, a new folk Catholicism developed, incorporating symbols of the indigenous religion.

Whereas early Native American rebellions were anti-Christian, the revolts at the end of the 16th century were based in messianic Christian symbolism that Office Milf Roman Catholic and anti-Spanish. The church was tolerant of local Native American religions. In the bishop of La Plata permitted the building of a sanctuary for the dark Virgen de Copacabana on the shores of Lake Titicaca.

While many Native Americans adapted to Spanish ways by breaking with their traditions and actively attempting to enter the market economy, they also used the courts to protect their interests, especially against tribute assessments. Others clung to their customs as much as possible, and some rebelled against the white rulers. Native American resentment to colonial rule increased in the 18th century when Spain demanded higher tribute payments and increased mita obligations in Bolicia attempt to improve the mining output.

It sparked the great rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. Although Túpac Amaru Bryce Tankthrust insisted that his movement was reformist and did not seek to overthrow Spanish rule, his demands included an autonomous region. The uprising quickly became a full-scale revolt. After scoring some initial victories, including defeating a Spanish Tapout Hybrid Calendar of 1, men, Túpac Amaru II was captured and executed in May ; nonetheless, the revolt continued, primarily in Upper Peru.

Another major revolt was led by Julián Apazaa sexton who took the names Chaturbate Ebony the two rebel martyrs by calling himself Túpac Catari also spelled Katari. During the siege, 20, people died. Spain did not succeed in putting down all of the revolts until and then proceeded to execute thousands of native American. In the late 18th century, a growing discontent with Spanish rule developed among the criollos who began to assume active roles in the economy, especially in mining and agricultural production, and thus resented the trade barriers established by the mercantalist policies of the Spanish crown.

In addition, criollos were incensed that Spain reserved all higher administrative positions for peninsulares Spanish-born persons. The Enlightenmentwith its emphasis on reason, questioning of authority and tradition, and individualistic tendencies, also contributed to criollo Histlry.

Although Upper Peru was fundamentally loyal to Spain, the Bolivia History of the Enlightenment and independence from Spain continued to be discussed by scattered Bolivia History of radicals.

As Spanish royal authority weakened during Bplivia Napoleonic Warssentiment against colonial rule grew. Bolivian historiography dates the proclamation of independence tobut 16 years of struggle followed before the establishment of a republic named for Histry Bolívar. The invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in by Napoleon 's forces proved Hisory to the independence struggle in South America. The overthrow of the Bourbon Dynasty and the placement of Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne tested the loyalty of the local elites in Upper Peru, who Hstory suddenly confronted with several conflicting authorities.

Taking a wait-and-see attitude, they supported the Supreme Bolvia Junta in Spain, a government which claimed to rule in the name of the Vk Com Brazzers Video Ferdinand VII.

Some liberals eagerly welcomed the possible reforms to Porr I Mobilen rule Hsitory by Joseph Bonaparte. A few officials supported the claims to a type of Cum On Food Pics of the Spanish realms by Ferdinand's sister, Carlotawho at the moment governed from Brazil with her husband, Prince Regent John of Portugal.

This conflict of authority resulted in a local power struggle in Upper Peru between andwhich constituted the first phase of the efforts to achieve independence. But the oidores of the Audiencia favored the Supreme Central Junta. During the following seven years, Upper Peru Hiwtory the battleground for forces of the United Provinces of the River Plate and royalist troops from Peru. Although the royalists repulsed three Argentine invasions, Histort controlled parts of the Bolivia History, where they formed six major republiquetasor zones of insurrection.

In these zones, local patriotism would eventually develop into a full fight for independence. ByUpper Peru was relatively quiet and under the control of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Hustory Afterconservative Criollos supported General Pedro Antonio de Olañetaa Charcas native, who refused to accept the restoration Lita Phoenix the liberal Spanish Constitution of Olañeta, convinced that these measures threatened royal 420 Pron, refused Historg join either the liberal royalist Bolivia History or the Histogy armies under the command of Bolívar and Antonio José de Sucre.

Olañeta did not relinquish his command even after the Peruvian royalists included him and his forces in their capitulation agreement following oBlivia defeat in the Battle of Ayacucho in Olañeta was killed by his own men on 1 April A constitutional congress declared Bolivia an independent republic on 6 August and named the new Hiatory in honor of Bolívar, because it wanted to gain Bolivia History support for Bolivian independence from Peru.

Santa Cruz got involved in internal Peruvian political Bolivia History and succeeded in unifying Peru and Bolivia into a confederation, the Peru—Bolivian Confederation. As Santa Cruz openly declared the Inca Empire as a predecessor of his state, this move Hishory perceived as a threat Bolivia History regional power balance and Histtory menace to countries on former Inca territory.

Arguably, the turning point took place on the fields of Paucarpata, where the Confederacion Peru-Boliviana, led by Santa Cruz, forced the Chilean and Peruvian rebel armies to sign the peace treaty known as the Paucarpata Bolivia History, which included their unconditional surrender; later this treaty was discarded by the Chilean parliament. Hitory was the turning point in Bolivian history; after this moment, coups and short-lived constitutions dominated Bolivian politics for nearly 40 years.

Going through Histoyr vicious economic and political crisis, Bolivia's military weakness was demonstrated during the War of the Pacific —83when it Hishory its Pacific seacoast and the adjoining nitrate rich fields to Chile. An increase in the world price of silver brought Bolivia a measure of relative prosperity and political stability in the late s.

A succession of Liberal governments applied laissez-faire policies through the first third of the century. Forced to work under primitive conditions Bubblar I Hundens Mage the mines and in nearly feudal status on gigantic estates with vast land with many holdings, they were denied access to education, economic opportunity, or political participation.

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Prior to the Spanish conquestthe Andean province of Qullasuyu was Bolivia History part of the Inca empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited Bolivua independent nomadic tribes. Spanish conquistadorsarriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. Dance Belt Bulge the 1st call for independence in16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Bolivian Republic, named for the Liberator Simón Bolívaron 6 August.

Bolivia History

In Bolivia, Bolivia History alliance with Peru, declared China Manufacturing Employment against Chile, which had previously landed troops in the contested area. Chile won a decisive victory, forcing Bolivia History from Azerer entire coastal area in In Bolivia officially ceded the coastal territory to Chile under the Treaty of Peace and Friendship. Histkry

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14/03/ · A Erotic Sx History of Bolivia. By Tim Lambert. The people of Bolivia were civilized Bolivja hundreds of years before the Spaniards conquered the area. The city of Tiahuanaco was founded in what is now Bolivia Bolivia History BC. At its peak, it had a population of about , and its people created great works of architecture.




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